Essay topics: The following appeared as part of a letter to the editor of a scientific journal.
"A recent study of eighteen rhesus monkeys provides clues as to the effects of birth order on an individual's levels of stimulation. The study showed that in stimulating situations (such as an encounter with an unfamiliar monkey), firstborn infant monkeys produce up to twice as much of the hormone cortisol, which primes the body for increased activity levels, as do their younger siblings. Firstborn humans also produce relatively high levels of cortisol in stimulating situations (such as the return of a parent after an absence). The study also found that during pregnancy, first-time mother monkeys had higher levels of cortisol than did those who had had several offspring.
Write a response in which you discuss one or more alternative explanations that could rival the proposed explanation and explain how your explanation(s) can plausibly account for the facts presented in the argument.
The argument states a conclusion on several assumptions and study,the Birth order on individuals level of stimulations.However this argument is unwarranted and has many flaws.
To begin with,first evidence produced is the recent study of eighteen monkeys,which is unclear.Study was surveyed only on eighteen numbers of rhesus monkeys,whereas there may be more monkeys than actual numbers.if the study was made on the entire monkey population of a particluar location,it would have better helped in concluding results.To proplled in to the conclusion just by eighten monkeys study,will obviously lead to wrong results.
The study results are problematic in additional aspects as well. Stimulating situations are encountered between unfamiliar monkeys.If monkeys are unfamiliar,it might be possibility that they bear diffrent body level activities and on average the results is, they bear a similar trend.The assumptions made here is unfamiliar monkeys bear same level of body activity which may be true or may wrong,not gurranted.If the study would have done with familiar monkeys and these results can been compared to results of unfamiliar monkeys,results would have been appropriate.Because any two things in the world can be similar, but not identical.
The argument relies on what might be false analogy between humans and animals stimulating systems.There is weak analogy drawn between first born in humans and first born in monkeys.Arguments would have been true if study was compared between two animals or between two humans.Unless human and monkey do share relevant and similar circumtances,it would have been easy to drawn the results.For example, if study was done on second offsprings of human body and then compared with many other same demographic,results would been warranted.Perhaps,in this study two unsimilar species is compared to draw a final conclusion, which is unbiased.
At last,Is the firstborn infant monkey only the reason to increase the activity levels? Yet no evidence is offered to substantiate the conclusion.There might some other factor behind reason of increased activity levels,which was failed to encountered during the study.The conclusion is drawn only by one study that is on first infant,which not sufficient to scant evidence for claiming such cause and effect.If the study would have provided with additional research on other factors for revealling increased activity levels,then conclusion would not be flawed.
To bolster this conclusion,additional evidences and exact census of demographic should be provided.Indiviual species results should be compared rather than to different species.Addition to it,the exact number of factors should be emperically studied to draw a conclusion.
In conclusion context,lack of strong evidence brings the study to be encountering lots errors and mistakes.
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