SAT OG 2016 Reading - Test 4 reading 4

Questions 32-41 are based on the following

Passage 1 is adapted from Edmund Burke,Reflections on the Revolution in France. Originally published in 1790. Passage 2 is adapted from Thomas Paine, Rights of Man.Originally published in 1791.

Passage 1

To avoid...the evils of inconstancy and

versatility,ten thousand times worse than those of

obstinacy and the blindest prejudice, we have
consecrated the state,that no man should approach
5 to look into its defects or corruptions but with due

caution; that he should never dream of beginning its

reformation by its subversion; that he should

approach to the faults of the state as to the wounds of

a father,with pious awe and trembling solicitude. By
10 this wise prejudice we are taught to look with horror

on those children of their country who are prompt

rashly to hack that aged parent in pieces,and put him

into the kettle of magicians, in hopes that by their

poisonous weeds,and wild incantations,they may
15 regenerate the paternal constitution, and renovate

their father’s life.
Society is indeed a contract. Subordinate contracts

for objects of mere occasional interest may be

dissolved at pleasure—but the state ought not to be
20 considered as nothing better than a partnership

agreement in a trade of pepper and coffee,calico or

tobacco,or some other such low concern,to be taken

up for a little temporary interest,and to be dissolved

by the fancy of the parties. It is to be looked on with
25 other reverence; because it is not a partnership in

things subservient only to the gross animal existence

of a temporary and perishable nature.It is a

partnership in all science; a partnership in all art;a

partnership in every virtue,and in all perfection.
30 As the ends of such a partnership cannot be obtained

in many generations,it becomes a partnership not

only between those who are living, but between those

who are living,those who are dead,and those who

are to be born....The municipal corporations of
35 that universal kingdom are not morally at liberty at

their pleasure,and on their speculations of a

contingent improvement, wholly to separate and tear

asunder the bands of their subordinate community,

and to dissolve it into an unsocial,uncivil,
40 unconnected chaos of elementary principles.

Passage 2

Every age and generation must be as free to act for

itself,in all cases,as the ages and generations which

preceded it.The vanity and presumption of

governing beyond the grave, is the most ridiculous
45 and insolent of all tyrannies.
Man has no property in man;neither has any

generation a property in the generations which are to

follow.The Parliament or the people of 1688,or of

any other period, had no more right to dispose of the
50 people of the present day,or to bind or to control

them in any shape whatever, than the parliament or

the people of the present day have to dispose of,bind,

or control those who are to live a hundred or a

thousand years hence.
55 Every generation is,and must be,competent

to all the purposes which its occasions require.It is

the living,and not the dead,that are to be

accommodated.When man ceases to be,his power

and his wants cease with him; and having no longer
60 any participation in the concerns of this world, he

has no longer any authority in directing who shall be

its governors,or how its government shall be

organized,or how administered....
Those who have quitted the world,and those who
65 are not yet arrived at it,are as remote from each

other,as the utmost stretch of mortal imagination

can conceive.What possible obligation,then,can

exist between them; what rule or principle can be laid

down, that two nonentities, the one out of existence,
70 and the other not in,and who never can meet in this

world,that the one should control the other to the

end of time?...
The circumstances of the world are continually

changing,and the opinions of men change also; and
75 as government is for the living,and not for the dead,

it is the living only that has any right in it.That

which maybe thought right and found convenient in

one age,may be thought wrong and found

inconvenient in another.In such cases,who is to
80 decide,the living,or the dead?

Question 32 In Passage1,Burke indicates that a contract between a person and society differs from other contracts mainly in its