SAT OG 2018 Reading - Test 7 reading 4

Questions 32-41 are based on the following

Passage 1 is adapted from Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in America, Volume 2. Originally published in 1840. Passage 2 is adapted from Harriet Taylor Mill, “Enfranchisement of Women.” Originally published in 1851. As United States and European societies grew increasingly democratic during the nineteenth century, debates arose about whether freedoms enjoyed by men should be extended to women as well. 

Passage 1

I have shown how democracy destroys or

modifies the different inequalities which originate in

society; but is this all? or does it not ultimately affect
that great inequality of man and woman which has
5 seemed, up to the present day, to be eternally based

in human nature? I believe that the social changes

which bring nearer to the same level the father and

son, the master and servant, and superiors and

inferiors generally speaking, will raise woman and
10 make her more and more the equal of man. But here,

more than ever, I feel the necessity of making myself

clearly understood; for there is no subject on which

the coarse and lawless fancies of our age have taken a

freer range.
15 There are people in Europe who, confounding

together the different characteristics of the sexes,

would make of man and woman beings not only

equal but alike. They would give to both the same

functions, impose on both the same duties, and grant
20 to both the same rights; they would mix them in all

things—their occupations, their pleasures, their

business. It may readily be conceived, that by thus

attempting to make one sex equal to the other, both

are degraded; and from so preposterous a medley of
25 the works of nature nothing could ever result but

weak men and disorderly women.
It is not thus that the Americans understand that

species of democratic equality which may be

established between the sexes. They admit, that as
30 nature has appointed such wide differences between

the physical and moral constitution of man and

woman, her manifest design was to give a distinct

employment to their various faculties; and they hold

that improvement does not consist in making beings
35 so dissimilar do pretty nearly the same things, but in

getting each of them to fulfill their respective tasks in

the best possible manner. The Americans have

applied to the sexes the great principle of political

economywhich governs the manufactures of our age,
40 by carefully dividing the duties of man from those of

woman, in order that the great work of society may

be the better carried on.

Passage 2

As society was constituted until the last few

generations, inequality was its very basis; association
45 grounded on equal rights scarcely existed; to be

equals was to be enemies; two persons could hardly

coöperate in anything, or meet in any amicable

relation, without the law’s appointing that one of

them should be the superior of the other.
50 Mankind have outgrown this state, and all things

now tend to substitute, as the general principle of

human relations, a just equality, instead of the

dominion of the strongest. But of all relations, that

between men and women, being the nearest and
55 most intimate, and connected with the greatest

number of strong emotions, was sure to be the last to

throw off the old rule, and receive the new; for,

in proportion to the strength of a feeling is the

tenacity with which it clings to the forms and
60 circumstances with which it has even accidentally

become associated. . . .
. . . The proper sphere for all human beings is the

largest and highest which they are able to attain to.

What this is, cannot be ascertained without complete
65 liberty of choice. . . . Let every occupation be open to

all, without favor or discouragement to any, and

employments will fall into the hands of those men or

women who are found by experience to be most

capable of worthily exercising them.  There need be
70 no fear that women will take out of the hands of men

any occupation which men perform better than they.

Each individual will prove his or her capacities, in the

only way in which capacities can be proved,—by

trial; and the world will have the benefit of the best
75 faculties of all its inhabitants. But to interfere

beforehand by an arbitrary limit, and declare that

whatever be the genius, talent, energy, or force of

mind, of an individual of a certain sex or class, those

aculties shall not be exerted, or shall be exerted only
80 in some few of the many modes in which others are

permitted to use theirs, is not only an injustice to the

individual, and a detriment to society, which loses

what it can ill spare, but is also the most effectual way

of providing that, in the sex or class so fettered, the
85 qualities which are not permitted to be exercised

shall not exist.

Question 32 As used in line 9, “raise” most nearly means