SAT Reading - Khan Diagnostic Quiz level 1 - reading 1

Questions 1-5 are based on the following

Passage 1 is excerpted from John Locke’s “Second Treatise of Government,” first published in 1689. Passage 2 is excerpted from Pierre-Joseph Proudhon’s “General Idea of the Revolution in the 19th Century,” originally published in 1851.

Passage 1

Men being, as has been said, by nature, all free, equal,

and independent, no one can be put out of this estate, and

subjected to the political power of another, without his own
consent. The only way whereby any one divests himself of
5 his natural liberty, and puts on the bonds of civil society, is

by agreeing with other men to join and unite into a

community for their comfortable, safe, and peaceable living

one amongst another, in a secure enjoyment of their

properties, and a greater security against any, that are not of
10 it. This any number of men may do, because it injures not the

freedom of the rest; they are left as they were in the liberty of

the state of nature. When any number of men have so

consented to make one community or government, they are

thereby presently incorporated, and make one body politic,
15 wherein the majority have a right to act and conclude the

For when any number of men have, by the consent of

every individual, made a community, they have thereby made

that community one body, with a power to act as one body,
20 which is only by the will and determination of the majority:

for that which acts any community, being only the consent of

the individuals of it, and it being necessary to that which is

one body to move one way; it is necessary the body should

move that way whither the greater force carries it, which is
25 the consent of the majority: or else it is impossible it should

act or continue one body, one community, which the consent

of every individual that united into it, agreed that it should;

and so every one is bound by that consent to be concluded by

the majority.

Passage 2

30 The Social Contract is the supreme act by which each

citizen pledges to the association his love, his intelligence,

his work, his services, his goods, in return for the affection,

ideas, labor, products, services and goods of his fellows; the

measure of the right of each being determined by the
35 importance of his contributions, and the recovery that can be

demanded in proportion to his deliveries.
Thus the social contract should include all citizens, with

their interests and relations. If a single man were excluded

from the contract, if a single one of the interests upon which
40 the members of the nation, intelligent, industrious, and

sensible beings, are called upon to bargain, were omitted, the

contract would be more or less relative or special, it would

not be social.
The social contract should increase the well-being and
45 liberty of every citizen. If any one-sided conditions should

slip in; if one part of the citizens should find themselves, by

the contract, subordinated and exploited by the others, it

would no longer be a contract; it would be a fraud, against

which annulment might at any time be invoked justly.

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Question 1 The main idea of Passage 1 is that