Explicit Memories and Implicit Memories
In everyday life, when people speak of memory, they are almost always speaking about what psychologists would call explicit memories. An explicit memory is a conscious or intentional recollection, usually of facts, names, events, or other things that a person can state or declare. There is another kind of memory that is not conscious. Memories of this kind are called implicit memories. An individual can have an experience that he or she cannot consciously recall yet still display reactions that indicate the experience has been somehow recorded in his or her brain.
1. Now listen to part of a lecture on this topic in a psychology class.
2. Ok, uh... the first kind of memory, we're all very familiar with this, right?
3. You probably remember what you had for dinner last night - you have a Conscious Memory of last night's dinner.
4. So, um, if I ask you 'what did you eat last night?' you could tell me.
5. But these other kind of memories - 'implicit Memories', they work differently.
6. Let's take an example from the world of advertising.
7. When you're driving along a highway, you'll see plenty of billboards - you know, road-side advertisements.
8. You certainly don't remember them all.
9. But they still affect you.
10. Marketing researchers have shown, well, to be specific, let's say there's a billboard on the highway advertising a ... car, called the 'Panther'.
11. The ad shows a big picture of a car and above the car in huge letters is the name of the car- 'Panther'.
12. A lot of people drive by the billboard.
13. But ask those drivers later if they saw any advertisements for cars, and well, they'll think about it and a lot of them will say 'no'.
14. They honestly don't remember seeing any.
15. They have no conscious memory of the 'Panther' billboard.
16. So, you ask the same people a different question.
17. You ask, um...ok, um...you ask them to name an animal starting with the letter 'p'.
18. What do you think they'll answer?
19. Do they say 'pig'?
20. 'Pig' is the most common animal that starts with the letter 'p', but they don't say 'pig'.
21. They say 'Panther'.
22. The billboard had an effect even though the drivers don't remember ever seeing it.
|2019-09-26||Rasna James||66.00||Check this speaking|
|2018-08-28||chandr||76.00||Check this speaking|
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Attributes: Values AverageValues Percentages(Values/AverageValues)% => Comments
Performance on vocabulary words:
No of characters: 636.0 592.248995984 107% => OK
No of words: 169.0 155.574297189 109% => OK
Chars per words: 3.76331360947 3.80514564318 99% => OK
Fourth root words length: 3.60555127546 3.525876923 102% => OK
Word Length SD: 1.98594550593 1.79077849142 111% => OK
Unique words: 96.0 93.7148594378 102% => OK
Unique words percentage: 0.568047337278 0.604071249207 94% => More unique words wanted or less content wanted.
Syllable count: 205.2 185.844578313 110% => OK
Avg_syllables_per_word: 1.2 1.19417670683 100% => OK
Performance on coherence:
Topic speech coherence ratio: 0.025060355441 0.0650381309087 39% => It may have issues on recording quality or the content is not so closely related to content.
Acoustic performance on paragraphs:
How many acoustic paragraphs: 2.0 4.35341365462 46% => OK
Average paragraph length: 84.5 68.503853103 123% => OK
STD paragraph length: 22.5 21.3332995233 105% => OK
Average paragraph duration: 29.13 25.9943957902 112% => OK
STD paragraph duration: 10.85 7.84667146824 138% => OK
Acoustic performance on sentences:
How many acoustic sentences: 37.0 42.0642570281 88% => OK
Average acoustic sentence length: 4.56756756757 4.02192344571 114% => OK
STD acoustic sentence length: 3.38949522305 3.1217529195 109% => OK
Average acoustic sentences duration: 1.51783783784 1.45093177766 105% => OK
STD acoustic sentences duration: 0.831566854295 0.99851816184 83% => OK
Acoustic performance on acoustic silence:(An acoustic silence means a little pause between two or more words)
How many acoustic silence: 39.0 39.0421686747 100% => OK
Total acoustic silence duration: 7.76 7.12997991968 109% => OK
Average acoustic silence duration: 0.198974358974 0.185688545393 107% => OK
STD acoustic silence duration: 0.208926374859 0.155154303396 135% => OK
Acoustic performance on acoustic words:
Total word duration: 46.95 47.1480722892 100% => OK
Average word duration: 0.277810650888 0.305395592593 91% => OK
STD word duration: 0.153828651713 0.189427763521 81% => OK
Disfluencies: like hesitations, or 'ehn' or taking a long time to pronounce a word:
How many disfluencies: 7.0 7.94979919679 88% => OK
Total_disfluencies_duration: 5.05 6.2937751004 80% => OK
Total acoustic noise duration: 1.45 3.39508032129 43% => OK
Total speech duration: 58.26 59.7592369478 97% => Talk more. Do not save time. People can talk 4-5 words in one second.
Compare to expected duration: 0.971 0.995987282463 97% => OK
Rate of silence: 0.669412976313 0.656000678711 102% => OK
Rate of speech: 2.90078956402 2.60215298798 111% => OK
Rate of speech by unique words: 1.64778578785 1.56821927147 105% => OK
Rate of word duration by unique words: 2.0447284345 1.99336655568 103% => OK
Average articulation rates: 0.276214378698 0.317803793328 87% => OK
Rates: 76.6666666667 out of 100
Scores by speech e-grader: 23.0 Out of 30
Note: the speech e-grader does NOT examine the meaning of words and ideas.